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La Rivoluzione Agricola e il suo impatto sulla salute umana

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Re: La Rivoluzione Agricola e il suo impatto sulla salute um

Messaggioda begreenordie il 26 gen 2013, 12:35

Altro abstract molto interessante, riguardante l'incremento delle affezioni dento-alveolari nelle popolazioni asiatiche durante il passaggio a economie agricole.
Saluti, Luca

Fonte: American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Volume 87, Issue 2, pages 133–150, February 1992)

Dental paleopathology and agricultural intensification in South Asia: New evidence from Bronze Age Harappa
John R. Lukacs

Patterns of dental disease among Bronze Age people of the Indus Valley Civilization are currently based on early and incomplete reports by non-specialists. This deficiency precludes accurate diachronic analysis of dental disease and its relationship with increasing agriculturalism in the Indian subcontinent. The objective of this paper is to document prevalence of dental disease at Harappa (2500–2000 B.C.), Punjab Province, Pakistan, comparatively evaluate the Harappan dental pathology profile, and use these data to assess theories regarding the dental health consequences of increasingly intensive agricultural dependence.


Pathological conditions of the dentition included in the study are abscesses, ante-mortem tooth loss (AMTL), calculus, caries, hypoplasia, hypercementosis, pulp chamber exposure, and alveolar resorption. The Harappan dentition exhibits a dental pathology profile typical of a population whose subsistence base is agriculture. Dental caries at Harappa are present in 6.8% (n = 751) of the teeth and 43.6% (n = 39) of the more completely preserved dental specimens. The use of a caries correction factor is recommended to permit an estimate of caries induced AMTL in calculating the caries prevalence. All dental lesions are present at higher rates in this Harappan study sample than were reported in previous investigations, and important differences in prevalence of dental disease occur between the genders. Prevalence of dental disease increases in the greater Indus Valley as subsistence becomes more intensive and as food preparation and storage technology becomes more efficient.
La genetica inserisce il colpo in canna, ma sono le abitudini che premono il grilletto...
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Re: La Rivoluzione Agricola e il suo impatto sulla salute um

Messaggioda Omega il 4 feb 2013, 15:39

Physical Activity and Modernization: Heart Disease Indicators Almost Non-Existent Among Tsimane, Indigenous Population
Jan. 31, 2013 — Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States, and a sedentary lifestyle is often cited as a major contributing factor. Among the Tsimane, an indigenous population in the lowlands of Bolivia's Amazon basin, however, indicators of heart disease are practically non-existent -- cholesterol is low, obesity is rare, and smoking is uncommon.


That's according to researchers at UC Santa Barbara and the University of New Mexico, who have been studying hunter-gatherers and forager-horticulturists to understand how their physical activity levels are affected by modernization; whether that, in turn, has increased the incidence of obesity, hypertension, and other conditions related to heart disease; and how their findings might apply to adults in the U.S. Their research is highlighted in an article published February 1 in the journal PLoS ONE.
The simple answer, according to Michael Gurven, professor of anthropology at UCSB and lead author of the study, is that physical activity alone -- or lack thereof -- does not relate to obesity or body fat among the Tsimane, and despite a subsistence lifestyle, activity alone is unlikely to account for their relative absence of chronic disease. As Gurven noted, the research demonstrates that, although a high level of physical activity may be important in staving off heart disease and diabetes, it's unlikely to be the "magic bullet" that explains why a group like the Tsimane maintains a healthy chronic disease profile.
"Indigenous populations like the Tsimane are very physically active," said Gurven, who is also director of UCSB's Integrative Anthropological Sciences Unit and the Broom Demography Center's Biodemography and Evolution Unit. "There are people who think physical activity alone is enough to have a healthy heart. They assumed the Tsimane activity level was equal to running a marathon every day. But we did the analysis, and they aren't."
By measuring the physical activity level (PAL) of individual Tsimane men and women over 24-hour periods using a combination of spot observations and accelerometers, combined with heart rate monitors, Gurven and his team found is that while the Tsimane are, indeed, physically active -- more so than average Americans -- their PAL is not so great that it separates them from that of developed populations. "We found that while the Tsimane are more active than we are, there's a decent amount of overlap," he said. "Tsimane are not more vigorously active than athletic Americans with a high activity level. In fact, Tsimane do not spend much time in 'vigorous' activity, but instead spend a lot of time in light to moderate activity. Rather than characterizing the Tsimane as vigorously active, I'd more safely say they are not sedentary."
The researchers also examined issues related to obesity and body mass index (BMI). "One idea is that we're less active than we used to be, so we get heavier," Gurven explained. "But that's actually kind of controversial. The heavier you get, the more weight you have to move around. So even though you may be less active, you could be expending more energy. There's plenty of data that even when people are experimentally manipulated to increase their activity levels, after a three month period, their weight doesn't shift all that much. Or it shifts and goes back again."
That might be due to increased appetite and subsequent excess food intake, Gurven suggested. "Depending on your hunger levels, you might be eating more than the increase in your activity can accommodate, so you end up gaining weight. When we looked at people's BMI and levels of physical activity, we found no relationship. People with higher BMI's weren't less active than people with low BMI's."
That finding, he said, is consistent with the idea that it's not physical activity, but excess food intake that is more responsible for the "obesity epidemic" of the last several decades.
Another important finding is that physical activity does not appear to correlate with modernization, as measured by village distance to town, Spanish fluency, and formal schooling. This pattern contradicts robust findings in other areas of the world, where even short periods of socioeconomic change can radically alter activity patterns and diet, and, therefore, subsequent risk of chronic disease. "And that's not particularly surprising," he said. "Even Tsimane in the most acculturated villages, who speak Spanish and have wage labor jobs, continue to work fields, and they still fish. In addition, most jobs themselves are labor-intensive -- logging, working as ranch hands, or transporting resources from one place to another. "It's all physically active work," he said. "Modernization hasn't changed that."
However, women do not typically participate in these labor intensive jobs, and so while modernization didn't affect their activity levels, modern Tsimane women were more likely to be overweight. "Tsimane men are more physically active than women at all ages, and less likely to be overweight; and so the few cases of hypertension and other ailments characteristic of cardiovascular disease are observed more among Tsimane women than men -- a striking contrast with what is commonly observed in the U.S.," Gurven concluded.



http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... oo%21+Mail


Michael Gurven, Adrian V. Jaeggi, Hillard Kaplan, Daniel Cummings. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (1): e55679 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055679
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0055679
«Qualunque cosa tu possa fare o sognare di fare, incominciala! L’audacia ha in sé genio, potere e magia» (Goethe)
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Re: La Rivoluzione Agricola e il suo impatto sulla salute um

Messaggioda Omega il 19 feb 2013, 12:15

Denti, cavo orale, ecosistema microbico e salute.
L'inserimento nell'alimentazione di carboidrati “neolitici” (provenienti dall'agricoltura) e poi di farina e zucchero lavorati industrialmente, ha portato un profondo cambiamento negativo relativo ai microbi presenti nel cavo orale, verso una composizione associabile a diverse malattie.
Un primo passaggio in questo senso si è avuto col passaggio di un'alimentazione (paleolitica) da cacciatori-raccoglitori a una (neolitica) agricola.
Dal Neolitico al Medioevo si poi è riscontrata una composizione dei microbi nel cavo orale sostanzialmente stabile.
Nel corso della rivoluzione industriale abbiamo un nuovo cambiamento che radicalizza gli effetti negativi comportati dall'alimentazione agricola, con l'affermazione di una presenza cronica di batteri cariogeni e un significativo impoverimento degli ecosistemi microbici orali, associabile a una condizione permanente di malessere e a diverse malattie, legate direttamente agli stili di vita odierni.

"Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions"
Christina J Adler, Keith Dobney, Laura S Weyrich, John Kaidonis, Alan W Walker, Wolfgang Haak, Corey J A Bradshaw, Grant Townsend, Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, Kurt W Alt, Julian Parkhill & Alan Cooper
Nature Genetics, (2013) doi:10.1038/ng.2536. Published online, Feb 17th, 2013.
«Qualunque cosa tu possa fare o sognare di fare, incominciala! L’audacia ha in sé genio, potere e magia» (Goethe)
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Re: La Rivoluzione Agricola e il suo impatto sulla salute um

Messaggioda begreenordie il 1 mar 2013, 21:27

E' un progetto molto interessante. L'articolo l'ho ripreso da qui:
http://humanfoodproject.com/hunter-gatherers-namibia/
Il microbioma (la vastissima comunità microbica che popola il nostro corpo, dall'epidermide al tubo digerente...) sta diventando un interessante campo di ricerca biomedica. L'articolo è datato 26 giugno 2012: di sicuro uscirà qualcosa di molto interessante... Stiamo in attesa...
Saluti, Luca

Hunter-Gatherers of Namibia

Long-term diet-microbiome study among the San in Namibia. We will spend 9-12 months in eastern Namibia near the town of Tsumkwe (near Botswana border). Working with 4-5 San villages, we will study the current impact of diet on the gut microbiome. The study will also include working with several of the San villages to revert 100% back to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle for 30, 60 and 120 day periods. Detailed diet and environmental conditions will be monitored, and a full suite of samples (feces, skin and oral swabs, etc) will be collected and prepared for analysis. We will monitor the impact on the gut microbiome on seasonal changes in diet in a natural setting – something that has never been done. We will also have the opportunity to monitor high protein-fat diet from terrestrial versus aquatic resources and the role hygiene on the gut microbiome and innate and adaptive immune system.

The overall project provides a unique opportunity for researchers around the world to learn about the microbiome-disease-diet axis in a setting similar to that from which we all evolved and a great many of the San still live (albeit less and less so). We also have the opportunity to live among some very remote and minimally contacted groups as well. No antibiotics. No livestock. No agriculture. No western food. Natural births and extended breast feeding (2-3 yrs).
The importance of sampling and preserving microbial diversity from traditional groups in regions where the effects of globalization on diet and lifestyle are less profound will be important in determining if interventions may allow modulation of an individual’s so-called enterotype to improve health (and even of the concept of the core enterotypes hold up). However, worldwide diversity of microbial repertoire’s in these traditional communities is fast disappearing and if we ever hope to understand what a “normal” and truly “healthy” microbiome might look like, we will need to work with these minimally contacted groups to create a bio bank of stool samples before its lost forever.
La genetica inserisce il colpo in canna, ma sono le abitudini che premono il grilletto...
***
Ho delle taniche per fare il farmer walk... Da shoooogno...
***
La macchina 50 che figata... E del quartiere tu sei già una star...
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begreenordie
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